Toxicity of certain elements can vary dramatically depending on oxidation state or the organometallic compound or species in which they are present. Therefore, it is frequently necessary to determine the chemical form or species in addition to total elemental concentrations, to assess toxicity or potential impact. To measure the concentration of an element's different chemical forms, the species must first be separated using a relevant chromatographic technique, prior to ICP-MS detection. The most commonly utilized is HPLC (LC) or ion chromatography (IC), although ICP-MS can also be coupled to GC, CE, FFF and a range of other separation techniques. Further technical details
on the LC-ICP-MS Connection Kit are available.